As mentioned before, although nose cosmetic surgery plays a very large role in making a face prettier, other factors can also have a positive or negative role in facial beauty. These factors inclde the type and color of skin, the facial muscles mode (facial mimic), the states of eyes, eyebrows and hair, forehead, cheeks, lips, chin, teeth and neck that can affect a person’s beauty. In some of these cases, no specific procedure have been developed so far; but in most cases, there is a possibility of correction. Most patients undergoing these surgeries (unlike rhynoplasty) try to hide the performance of these surgeries. Therefore, these surgeries are not known in the public, and perhaps it is why their statistics is lower compared to nose surgeries. Sometimes, these operations are so influential and at the same time more convenient for both the surgeon and the patient. Here, I refer to some of these surgeries.
The chin cosmetic surgery is on the top of the list. Chin surgery is done in most cases to get the chin ahead, which is conudcted by a simple operation using a prosthesis. In more complex cases, a relatively stiffer surgery is performed by cutting the chin bone. In cases of impaired occlusion (tooth pairing), the surgeon may need to work with an orthodontist and even surgeries done by a maxillofacial surgeon. Sometimes, the upper jaw has also some problems, which is operated by a maxillofacial surgeon and cooperation with an orthodontist. The cheeks surgery is also a relatively common surgical procedure. This operation is usually done to enlarge the cheeks. It can be (such as chin) with embedding a cheek prosthesis or through fat injections. Fat injection is a surgical procedure that perhaps is the safest facial surgery with no trouble. In this surgery, the fat taken by needle from other parts of the body will be injected into cheeks, and sometimes, the lips and even into the chin and other required parts. Although the right fat injection technique highly influences the operation result, but since a relatively large amount of injected fat will be absorbed, the patient may need to undergo the procedure for several times to achieve the full results. In my experience, most patients have achieved relative satisfaction with one session of fat injection. However, the patients willing to do fat injection should know that two times or more fat injection may be needed (even up to 10 times) for complete correction. Recently, injection of some non-absorbable gel made of polyacrylamide has been widespread in our country (Iran). Although they have fast, cheap, permanent and complete results, but I would not recommend using this material due to their unknown complications and irreversible nature. Injection of absorable materials such as gels made of hyaluronic acid and collagen, although completely absorbed after a limited period, but are safe and approved and can be used to fill facial lines and wrinkles. Botox or botulinum toxin injection used to paralyze the frown or scowl muscles and help reducing facial wrinkles is among other things that can help older people for facial beauty. It usually needs repeated injections.
Eyelid surgery or blepharoplasty that can help to remove puffiness of upper and lower eyelids are among cosmetic surgeries that are usually done in older people, although young people sometimes need to do such operations. Pulling or strecthing the skin of forehead and eyebrows and facelift and necklifting or double chin lifting are as surgeries that were done mostly in older people. But now, especially with the advent of endoscopic procedures, eyebrow lifting and cheeks uplifting are also done in young people. Sometimes, with fat injection or insertion graft into the lips and even through the injection of approved materials mentioned before, the lips can be made thicker, helping the individual facial beauty.
Another factor that may help in the beauty is the form and color of the teeth. Today, some treatments are used for correction of teeth color and form. At present, orthodoncy is among treatments known by the general public that in addition to medical assistance can have an effective role in the beauty of the face. Treatments on gums and correting the teeth length are among facilities that can be provided by a skillful dental treatment.
Another cosmetic surgery that is better in ages before school to prevent negative psychological effects is the surgery of protruding ear. But usually, patients refer to correct it in older ages.
Finally, I mention hair surgeries. In this method, using new techniques, the hair roots from other parts of the head are grafted in the low-hair and bald spots. These hairs grow like natural hair.